A terracotta head created by the Nok culture, one of ancient West Africa’s most advanced civilizations, emerges at a dig site near Janjala, Nigeria. Courtesy Peter Breunig. In , British archaeologist Bernard Fagg received a visitor in the central Nigerian town of Jos, where he had spent the previous few years gathering and classifying ancient artifacts found on a rugged plateau. The visitor carried a terracotta head that, he said, had been perched atop a scarecrow in a nearby yam field. Fagg was intrigued. The piece resembled a terracotta monkey head he had seen a few years earlier, and neither piece matched the artifacts of any known ancient African civilization. Fagg, a man of boundless curiosity and energy, traveled across central Nigeria looking for similar artifacts. As he recounted later, Fagg discovered local people had been finding terracottas in odd places for years—buried under a hockey field, perched on a rocky hilltop, protruding from piles of gravel released by power-hoses in tin mining. He set up shop in a whitewashed cottage that still stands outside the village of Nok and soon gathered nearly terracottas through purchase, persuasion, and his own excavations. Soil analysis from the spots where the artifacts were found dated them to around B.
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Dudley,  the British colonialists used direct rule for the indigenous ethnic groups on the Jos plateau since they were not under the Fulani emirates where indirect rule was used. It was the discovery of tin by the British that led to the influx of other ethnic groups such as the Hausa , Igbo , Yoruba , thus making Jos a cosmopolitan city. According to the white paper of the meet of inquiry into the crisis, Ames, a British colonial administrator, said that the original name for Jos was Gwosh dating was a village situated at site current site of site city; according to Ames, the Hausa wrongly pronounced Gwosh as Jos and it stuck.
To distinguish it from the hill tops, it was called “Jas”, jos was mis-pronounced by dating British as “Jos”. It grew rapidly after the British discovered vast dating deposits in the vicinity. Both girls and jos were extensively mined in dating area up until the s.
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Background: The patterns of childhood acquired heart diseases AHD vary in different parts of the world and may evolve over time. We aimed to compare the pattern of childhood AHD in our institution to the historical and contemporary patterns in other parts of the country, and to highlight possible regional differences and changes in trend.
Materials and Methods: Pediatric echocardiography records spanning a period of 10 years were reviewed. Echocardiography records of children with echocardiographic or irrefutable clinical diagnoses of AHD were identified and relevant data extracted from their records. Results: One hundred and seventy five children were diagnosed with AHD during the period, including seven that had coexisting congenital heart disease CHD.
They were aged 4 weeks to 18 years mean 9. Other AHD encountered were cor pulmonale in 16 9. Conclusions: The majority of childhood acquired heart diseases in our environment are still of infectious aeitology, with RHD remaining the most frequent, particularly in older children.
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In , tin mining in the vicinity of the village of Nok near the Jos Plateau region of Nigeria brought to light a terracotta head, evidence of the oldest known figurative sculpture south of the Sahara. Although stylistically related heads, figures, animals, and pottery shards have been found in a number of Nigerian sites since that time, such works are identified by the name of the small village where the first terracotta head was discovered.
Artifacts continue to be unearthed without documentation of the context in which they were buried, a lack of extensive archaeological study that has severely limited our understanding of Nok terracottas. One of the earliest African centers of ironworking and terracotta figure production, the Nok culture remains an enigma. Most Nok sculpture is hollow and coil-built like pottery.
Finely worked to a resilient consistency from local clays and gravel, the millennia-long endurance of these ancient objects is a testament to the technical ability of their makers. This is not to say that Nok sculpture has survived unchanged by time. The slip the mixture of clay and water used to give pottery surfaces an even texture of many Nok terracottas has eroded, leaving a grainy, pocked exterior that does not reflect their original smooth appearance.
Most of the Nok sculpture found consists of what appear to be portrait heads and bodies fragmented by damage and age. The recovered portions of the baked clay bodies that have survived show that they were sculpted in standing, sitting, and genuflecting postures. Nok head fragments were once part of entire bodies and are the most renowned objects within the corpus known to date.
These objects are so highly varied that it is likely they were modeled individually rather than cast from molds. Although terracottas are usually formed using additive techniques, many Nok pieces were sculpted subtractively in a manner similar to carving. This distinctive approach suggests that a comparable wood-carving tradition may have influenced them.
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The Kassa volcanic basalt is one of the intraplate basaltic rocks on the Jos Plateau Norway for the age dating using Ar-Ar method with a view to constraint their.
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