I was stranded there for two days and was in awe at the accuaracy of your site. I retrived your site now to plan communications with contacts in Japan. I Thank You! Gary C. Fort Myers , Florida I am a travel specialist of Expedia and I always pull this site up for time references. The site for sure is really helpful to all sorts. I often let my mates use this site when working. Gotta use this site again. Bobby E.
P5: Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange
PDF version. Are dates required on these food products? Does it mean the product will be unsafe to use after that date? Here is some background information answering these and other questions about product dating.
Convention for displaying the short-date in the electronic health record. The following rules are a suggested approach to the display of dates in health care. I think these make Month: written as a three-letter abbreviation.
The Gregorian calendar is the global standard for the measurement of dates. Despite originating in the Western Christian tradition, its use has spread throughout the world and now transcends religious, cultural and linguistic boundaries. As most people are aware, the Gregorian calendar is based on the supposed birth date of Jesus Christ. Do they mean the same thing, and, if so, which should we use? This article provides an overview of these competing systems. The idea to count years from the birth of Jesus Christ was first proposed in the year by Dionysius Exiguus, a Christian monk.
Standardized under the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the system spread throughout Europe and the Christian world during the centuries that followed.
Key to symbols and other conventions
The Dates module provides two types for working with dates: Date and DateTime , representing day and millisecond precision, respectively; both are subtypes of the abstract TimeType. The motivation for distinct types is simple: some operations are much simpler, both in terms of code and mental reasoning, when the complexities of greater precision don’t have to be dealt with. For example, since the Date type only resolves to the precision of a single date i.
Both Date and DateTime are basically immutable Int64 wrappers. Additional time zone functionality can be added through the TimeZones.
This is NASA’s official year dating conventions page. use of the religiously neutral abbreviations BCE (for “Before Common Era”) to substitute.
For phone numbers, use a hyphen to separate each block of digits:. Write out fractions that stand alone without a preceding whole number, unless the written form is long or the fraction is part of a technical measurement or calculation. Use the metric system for all measurements. Always use Canadian spelling and abbreviations for metric terms. Write out the full name of the month wherever possible. Use the first three letters of the month to abbreviate, except for March, April, May, June and July, which are never abbreviated.
Write out days of week wherever possible. Abbreviate to the first three letters, with no punctuation. Use “to” instead of dashes in time ranges. Capitalize Pacific, Atlantic and Newfoundland when the time zone is spelled out, but not mountain, central and eastern. When writing out a date and time, write the date first followed by a comma to separate the time.
We preserve and provide access to the records of the U. Many of the documents at the National Archives are handwritten records such as letters, memos, and reports. By transcribing documents, you can help us unlock history and discover hidden aspects of records and the stories they contain. All documents are unique and may contain various aspects such as stamps, tables, or charts.
But the dates themselves are exactly comparable to dates expressed as A.D. archaeologists, by convention, use A.D. as their reference.
Visitors to a web site from varying locales may be confused by date formats. The separators may be slashes, dashes or periods. Some locales print leading zeroes, others suppress them. Your first impulse may be to assume this problem will be taken care of during localization of the web pages – i. Resist this impulse.
Do you really want to keep separate copies of documents for the U. In any case you still have to deal with multilingual users like the one in our example above. Some prefer to modify ISO by using an abbreviation for the month to make it more clear, for example Apr, but then it is no longer locale neutral. To do this use a name for the month abbreviated or not and use 4 digits for all Gregorian year numbers. For example, 2 April The HTTP Accept-Language header only specifies the user’s language preferences, but is commonly used to determine locale preferences as well.
This method works well for dynamically generated web documents when inserting a date from some back-end storage into a page, as long as the user’s expectations of date format are clear. Appropriateness is a function of the linguistic context rather than simply the user’s browser settings.
Analysis of texts
Use agreed University abbreviations and codes where relevant. 5. Avoid vague Dates should always follow same format: YYYYMMDD e.g. 9.
The essential skill of a paleographer is the ability to recognize the numerous styles of handwriting prevalent in different ages and places. Most European scripts descend from Greek and Roman capital letters, but variations are enormous. It is a European convention that writing starts on the left at the top and works line by line down the page. The Greek and Latin alphabets existed originally as capital, or majuscule , letters. The ancient Greek alphabet , as developed in chiselled inscriptions on stone or marble, served without much modification as the alphabet used in literary works written on papyrus rolls.
This script, found in the oldest surviving Greek literary papyri of c. Cursive scripts that were easier to write were developed for everyday use, for business, and to record the acts of the great bureaucracy of Egypt, where the Greeks settled in large numbers. The Greek cursive script and the formal book script greatly influenced each other, as can be seen from a vast series of cursive documents dating from the 4th century bc for about 1, years.
Because so much material survived, early Greek cursive can be better studied than its Latin counterpart. In Greek cursive manuscripts the everyday life of ordinary people becomes a reality: they pay or fail to pay taxes, buy or sell houses, and harass civil servants with awkward demands.
BC, AD, BCE, BP Abbreviation(s), Latin phrase, Meaning
The western-style year dating convention commonly used in many parts of the world was created by the monk Dionysius Exiguus in or about the year AD The convention is based on Exiguus’ determination of the year in which Jesus Christ was born. In sixth century Europe, the concept of “zero” was still unknown. Thus, the year 1 BC was followed by the year AD 1.
Furthermore, modern scholars believe Christ’s birth was actually four years earlier than Exiguus thought. In spite of these deficiencies, the dating system devised by Exiguus is now too deeply ensconced in the Western world to easily change.
Always use Canadian spelling and abbreviations for metric terms. Metre is m; Kilometre is km; Kilogram is kg; Metric tonne is t; Hour is h; Celsius is C (the word.
Common Era CE is one of the notation systems for the world’s most widely used calendar era. The year-numbering system used by the Gregorian calendar is used throughout the world today, and is an international standard for civil calendars. The expression has been traced back to , when it first appeared in a book by Johannes Kepler as the Latin annus aerae nostrae vulgaris ,   and to in English as ” Vulgar [b] Era”. The term “Common Era” can be found in English as early as ,  and became more widely used in the midth century by Jewish religious scholars.
In the later 20th century, the use of CE and BCE was popularized in academic and scientific publications as a culturally neutral term. It is also used by some authors and publishers who wish to emphasize sensitivity to non-Christians by not explicitly referencing Jesus as ” Christ ” and Dominus “Lord” through use of the abbreviation [c] “AD”. The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year to replace the Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians.
This way of numbering years became more widespread in Europe with its use by Bede in England in Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of Jesus,  and the practice of not using a year zero. The term “Common Era” is traced back in English to its appearance as ” Vulgar Era” to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar in popular use from dates of the regnal year , the year of reign of a sovereign, typically used in national law.
This chapter describes a module which may be used for the encoding of names and other phrases descriptive of persons, places, or organizations, in a manner more detailed than that possible using the elements already provided for these purposes in the Core module. In section 3. The elements provided by the present module allow the encoder to supply a detailed sub-structure for such referring strings, and to distinguish explicitly between names of persons, places, and organizations.
This module also provides elements for the representation of information about the person, place, or organization to which a given name is understood to refer and to represent the name itself, independently of its application.
With dates (using the Christian calendar), AD means ‘Anno Domini’ (in the year of the Lord), To cater to religious diversity, the abbreviations BCE (Before Common Era) and CE Here is the earlier example again written in both conventions.
Mike is a teaching assistant in New York City, and to supplement his income, he has a second job: He sells drugs. The rise of gay dating sites in the s, such as early entrants Manhunt and Adam4Adam, provided gay men with new ways to connect. But over time, digital platforms geared toward LGBTQ men have also created a more convenient way for gay and bi men — a population that disproportionately uses illicit substances due to social stigma, discrimination and other minority stressors — to find drugs, and for drug dealers to find them.
However, those who use the app say it is still home to a robust market for illicit substances. Grindr users discreetly reference crystal meth by putting a diamond emoji in their profile, and snowflake emojis are used to get the attention of those looking to purchase cocaine. While there is no data that quantifies drug activity on Grindr, a dozen people who use the app spoke to NBC News about its prevalence.
Jones said approximately men responded to the ad he and his fellow researchers posted to Grindr. According to data from the U.
The origin and fate of new mutations within species is the fundamental process underlying evolution. However, while much attention has been focused on characterizing the presence, frequency, and phenotypic impact of genetic variation, the evolutionary histories of most variants are largely unexplored. We have developed a nonparametric approach for estimating the date of origin of genetic variants in large-scale sequencing data sets.
Key to symbols and other conventions. Before a word or sense. †, = obsolete. ‖, = not naturalized, alien (not used in.
Wikipedia, Anno Domini article :. For example, Cunningham and Starr write that “B. Common Era notation is used in many schools and academic settings. Later on, it was found Jesus likely wasn’t born that year , but a few years earlier i. Marking it as the “Christian Era” or more commonly, the “Common Era” allows the same epoch to be used even though the best calculation for Jesus’s birth has changed.
While Christians make up a very large chunk of the world’s population, they are no where near the majority. When “Christian Era” is used, it’s still clear what epoch is being referred to i. Modern dates are understood in the Western world to be in the Gregorian calendar, but for older dates writers should specify the calendar used.
List of IMO Conventions
In running text, numbers are expressed in words or figures according to the guidelines set out below. All numbers may be expressed in words in isolated references to approximate measures and periods of time. Numbers between 10 and , are normally written in figures, except as noted above. Note : The words “per cent” are normally written out. Note : In decimal fractions expressing a number that is less than one, a zero is inserted before the decimal point.
Known dates may define durations, just as known durations may define dates, or dates abbreviations, without periods, and with the SI convention for.
This is the case with writing and saying years. Why do we have more than one word to represent an era? How do we punctuate and capitalize these abbreviations? Is AD ever correct? BCE or B. Well, it depends on which style guide or dictionary you follow. Merriam-Webster Dictionary American English lists these entries with capital letters and no periods e.